6464 – Wawan Wurjantroro | Lecture of Esa Unggul University

informative speech

Your general purpose in an informative speech is to inform
Your specific purpose relates to your topic and to the specific information you want to convey.
Specific Purpose
The specific purpose of a speech is its goal, stated in a complete sentence. If the general
purpose of your speech is to inform, then your specific purpose will be a statement of the
particular information you will present to the audience.
Example: Joel’s general purpose in his speech about place-kicking is to inform. His specific
purpose could be stated in a complete sentence. “I want to explain the steps in soccer-style
place – kicking.”

1. Express the specific purpose as a declarative sentence.
2. State the specific purpose precisely. “I want to explain the four steps in soccer-style place – kicking.”
3. Make sure the specific purpose contains only one idea.
4. Include words in the specific purpose that show your intent. Examples: explain, show, give

Writing a Thesis Statement
A thesis statement is a complete sentence that expresses the speaker’s most important
idea, or key point, about a topic. A thesis statement guides the development of a speech
Examples:
1. Specific purpose : “I want to explain the characteristics of the six major classifications of show dogs.”
Thesis statement: “Show dogs are classified according to their characteristics as
hounds, terriers, working dogs, toys, sporting dogs, and non sporting dogs.
2. Specific purpose: “I want to convince the class that they should read “To Kill a Moc kingbird.”
Thesis statement: “To Kill a Mockingbird is an excellent book to read because it features interesting characters, thought -provoking issues, and an exciting plot.”

If you already know a great deal about your topic, you can write your thesi
s statement at this stage of your planning. For most speeches, however, you will need to do some research first.
SAMPLE
Subject Area: football
Topic: place-kicking
Limited Topic : soccer-style place-kicking
General Purpose: to inform
Specific Purpose: I want to explain the four steps in soccer-style place -kicking.
Thesis Statement: The four steps in soccer-style place -kicking are to spot the ball, to mark off
the steps, to approach the ball, and to kick the ball.

You need to find information to support your main idea as expressed in your thesis statement. The types of details commonly used to support a thesis include facts, opinions, examples, illustrations, anecdotes, statistics, comparisons, definitions, descriptions, and quotations

main point of speech

The main points of your speech may be organized in any of a number of logical patterns. The
three most common methods of arrangement are chronological order, spatial order, and
topical order.
1).Chronological Order.
It arranges details or events according to the order in which they occurred in time. Chronological order is often useful for speeches that present a history of something. To make remembering easier for your audience, group the steps in chronological order under broad headings.
Chronological Example:
Specific purpose: I want to explain the five stages in the evolution of the bicycle.
I. The first stage is the origin.
II. The second stage is the development of a steering device.
III. The third stage is the attachment of pedals to the front wheel.
IV. The fourth stage is the addition of chain drive.
V. The fifth stage is the development of modern safety features.

2) Topical Order
a topic is broken down into its parts and then arranged in an order determined by the speaker and stated in the specific purpose. This is the most common
method for organizing speeches.
Topical Order Example:
Specific purpose: I want to discuss three measures of the strength of the United States
as a world power.
I. One measure of U.S. strength is its natural resources.
II. A second measure of U.S. strength is its military.
III. A third measure of U.S. strength is its technology.

3)Spatial Order
details are arranged according to their posi
tion in space. This arrangement is often used for descriptions.
Spatial Order Example:
Specific purpose: I want to describe the three levels of the Community Center.
I. The basement contains various recreational facilities.
II. The main floor contains restaurants and administrative offices.
III. The second floor contains an auditorium, smaller meeting rooms, and a
banquet room.

4) Climactic Order
It arranges items according to their order of importance, usually starting with the least important item of information and ending with the item of information that is the most important.

5)Cause -and-Effect Order
information is arranged to show causes or conditions and
the effects or results of those causes or conditions.

6) Comparison-and-contrast Order
items of information are arranged to show the similarities and differences between the items.

Developing the Main Points
Once you have determined the main points of your speech and have
made an informal plan of organization, you can arrange your supporting information under appropriate headings. Remember that the main points provide a basic structure that you fill out with supporting information. As you sort and arrange your supporting material to group related ideas, take care to keep unity in mind. A speech is unified when all its parts fit together to make a whole
and all of the information contained in the speech relates to the specific purpose. The best way to plan a unified speech is to prepare an informal outline.

Preparing your Conclusion
The conclusion of an informative speech usually includes a summary of the main points.
Many speakers end with a quotation, an anecdote, or a final thought that makes the
conclusion more memorable. The conclusion is the final portion of a speech. Although a
conclusion is seldom longer than a few sentences, it is very important. The goals of an
effective conclusion are:
1)to emphasize the key idea or ideas of the speech
2)to intensify the emotions, or feelings, of the audience

Delivering Your Speech
Any speech will be more effective if it is delivered well.
1) Credibility- A speaker’s credibility is the amount of trust and belief the speaker
inspires in an audience. You want to establish yourself as a speaker whom the
audience can trust to give accurate information. One way to do this is to tell the
audience a little about your background or experience to let your audience know what
makes you qualified to talk about your topic. Be thoroughly prepared, but if you do not know something or if experts are still debating a point, freely admit this.
2)Enthusiasm –
Be enthusiastic about your topic. Your audience will probably find it difficult to become excited about the topic you are speaking about if you do not seem to find it important or interesting. The more enthusiasm you show, the more likely you are to get and to hold the audience’s attention.
3) Eye contact – Establish eye contact with your listeners. If you look
at the members of your audience, they will look at you. If you fail to establish eye contact, the members of the audience will let their eyes -and their attention – wander.

4) Vocal Variety and Emphasis – Vary your tone, rate, volume, and pitch to emphasize
key points and to make your speech more interesting.
5) Clear Articulation and Enunciation-Be careful not to slur your words. When you
speak clearly, your audience will find listening to your message easy and enjoyable.
6) Good Pronunciation-Your pronunciation can either help or hurt your credibility. If
you mispronounce key words in your speech, your listeners will begin to question whether you have a thorough knowledge of your subject.

the middle or the body

THE MIDDLE OR THE BODY OF PRESENTATION
CONTENT
Think about what information should you give in your speech? All your information should
support your purpose. In most cases you will have to limit the content, as time is usually precious!

Quantity
How much information should you give? Enough to clearly develop your ideas.
Don’t forget to illustrate through examples.

Sequencing your ideas
Here are a few possibilities for organizing your ideas: logical; chronological
order; from general to specific; from known to unknown; from accepted to controversial; cause/effect; problem/solution. Whatever sequencing you choose, the headings should be all of the same grammatical form.

Keeping the audience’s attention
The beginning and the end or the first and last parts of a talk are what listeners
will remember best. Think of ways you can keep the audience’s attention throughout the rest of the speech.

THE END OR CONCLUSION
The end of a talk should never come as a surprise to an audience; it needs
special consideration.
Content
The end or the conclusion of your talk should include four parts: a
brief reminder of what you tried to show in your speech and how you tried
to do so, a short conclusion, thanks to the audience for listening, and an
invitation to ask questions, make comments or open a discussion.

At the end you should briefly summarize your speech in a few lines to make
sure the audience has retained the main points. Alternatives are: to state the
point of the speech; give the essential message to retain; list the main points
and what you want the audience to remember; review informally or indirectly by
using a quote, a comparison or example.

Then you should give some kind of conclusion. That is to say you should
give a message that logically comes out of the ideas developed in your speech.
This could be a commentary, the lessons learned, some recommendations, or the next steps. You could also make a call to action; the audience should have to do something.

Here are some expressions used
I’d like to summarize/sum up…
At this stage I would like to run through/over the main points…
So, as we have seen today….
As I have tried to explain this morning BT finds itself in….

Or there may be recommendations or proposals that you wish to make;
As a result we suggest that…
In the light of what we have seen today I suggest that…
My first proposal is…

VISUALS
What are visuals?
Graphs, charts, maps, photos, drawings, images, models, video/film, objects
What media are used?
transparencies/slides, Power Point, slides, video projection/projector, handouts
What should you put on a visual?
key words, technical words, lists, examples, diagrams, charts

adapted from C. STORZ and the English language teachers of the Institut national de télécommunications, EVRY FRANCE.

Narrative exercise

The United Nations (UN)
The……(1) of the UN can ……(2) traced back……. (3)the League of Nations. This……(4)an international……..(5)which……(6)created…. (7)the Treaty of Versailles…….(8)1920 with the purpose…….(9) achieving world peace. Before 1930, the League, from its Geneva headquarters,……(10) international conferences and did useful humanitarian work,……..(11) it failed…… (12) deal effectively……..(13)international aggression…… (14) the 1930s. The League……..(15) formally closed….. (16)1946 and……. (17) Superseded……. (18) the United Nations.
The UN was…….. (19) on 24th October 1945, when the UN Charter……..(20) ratified….…. (21) the 51 founder member countries. Almost……. (23)the countries of the…….(24) are now members: 185 in all.
The U.N was……(25) to maintain international peace, and to encourage international co-peration to overcome economic, social , cultural and humanitarian problems. Apart….. (26) the…….(27) organs of the UN (The General Assembly, The Security Council etc.),……..(29)of the UN ‘s work is done……. (30) its specialised bodies……. (31) agencies……….(32) of the best………(33) are, perhaps, the FAO, ILO, IMF, WHO, UNESCO and UN ICEF.

Lecture of Esa Unggul University